Council: an assembly Counsel: advice
End quote. You end a quote, you don’t unquote.
Lesson: a period of teaching Lessen: to diminish
Sear: a cooking technique or part of a firearm Seer: a soothsayer or oracle Seir: a demon, a goat, a prince SEAR: a mathematics term
Futile: pointless Feudal: absurd or old fashioned, referencing a form of government
Hurtle: moving at great speed Hurdle: an obstacle
Mean: a verb meaning intent, also used as a mathematical term Mien: bearing or demeanor
Feet: the things at the end of your legs or a measurement Feat: an achievement
Wit: referring to intelligence Whit: referring to a small part of something
Faze is alarm or discomfort. A phase is a distinct period or a stage in a process. She was not fazed by the phase of her research.
Bury the lede.
Sync is an abbreviation of synchronization. Sink is what rocks do in the water of your kitchen sink.
A moot point is one that is debatable or disputable. A mute point is . . .
Conflation is the combining of two differing ideas. Correlation is the mutual relationship of two or more ideas.
Pastime – something that occurs to help you pass the time. Past time – a reference to something in relative comparison to time
Peel out – spinning your tires from a stopped position Peal out – in reference to bells and thunderclaps
Paid – the past tense of pay Payed – a sailing term
Quay – a platform near water Cay – a small island Key – same as cay but pronounced as key
Precedence – a consideration of importance Precedents – the plural of precedent
Pedal – a foot operated lever Peddle – selling something Petal – a part of a flower
Peek – to look at something secretly Peak – the pointed top of anything Pique – to make someone angry or annoyed
Wrack – violent, ruinous occurrences Rack – as a noun it refers to framework, as a verb it can refer to extreme stress. A person may feel racked, but never wracked.
Peace – a state of tranquility Piece – a part of something
Overdue – a reference to time Overdo – those seven shots at lunch
Pair – a set of Pare – removing something, pare away, pare down, pare the pear Pear – that fruit you’re paring from the last example or from a set of two, which is a pair
On the lam.
Never mind. Unless you’re referring to a Nirvana album.
Palate – the roof of your mouth Palette – flat board that artists use when mixing small amounts of paint Pallet – a platform that goods are stacked on
Mores – morals Moray – an eel
Moral – a behavior Morale – a feeling
Miner – a mine worker Minor – a child
Marshal – a title Marshall – to arrange
Medal – a medallion Metal – an element Meddle – to interfere, also the title of a Pink Floyd album Mettle – a display of courage or stamina
Mantle is a cloak. Mantel is what is above the fireplace.
Loose – not tightly fixed in place Lose – to mislay or deprive
Log-in – noun Log in – verb Never login.
Libel – defamation Liable – likely to do something or legally answerable
Let’s – a contraction for let us Lets –allow or permit
Lens – an optical device Lense – a variant spelling of lens
Leach – to drain away Leech – a segmented worm
Latter – former Later – a reference to time
Into – answering the question of where In to – everything else as it’s just happenstance that these two words are located next to each other in a sentence
Incite – to encourage Insight – a deep understanding
Hue and cry.
For all intents and purposes.
Eminent – prominent Imminent – threatening Immanent – inherent
Loser – a person who has failed Looser – a comparative to tight
Due respect, with all due respect.
Dew – water that appears in the morning on plants Do – verb, an action Due – a payment owed
Crochet – a type of needlework Crotchet – a crabby person
By – near or next to ‘Bye- an abbreviation of goodbye Buy – to purchase
Apart – separation A part – an implication of union
Leach -the drawing off of some substance Leech – an animal Closed Captioning and Subtitling defined here
Latter – referencing the last mentioned in a set of alternatives Later – a reference to time Closed Captioning and Subtitling defined here
Jamb – vertical side of a door or window frame Jam – all other uses Closed Captioning and Subtitling defined here
Llama – an animal Lama – a Tibetan monk Closed Captioning and Subtitling defined here
Disassemble – to take apart Dissemble – dishonesty Closed Captioning and Subtitling defined here
Idol – something admired Idle – inactivity Closed Captioning and Subtitling defined here
Highbred – superior ancestry Hybrid – a combination of a number of items into a single item Closed Captioning and Subtitling defined here
Forward – a direction Foreword – introductory information in a book Closed Captioning and Subtitling defined here
Lift off – verb Liftoff – noun Closed Captioning and Subtitling defined here
Run off – verb Runoff – noun Closed Captioning and Subtitling defined here
Break out – verb Breakout – noun Closed Captioning and Subtitling defined here
Rational – adjective for reasonable Rationale – underlying reason Closed Captioning and Subtitling defined here
Four – the number after 3 Fore – referencing the front of something, foreground, foreword, etc. It’s also the most common yell you hear right before hearing swearing on a golf course. For – preposition Closed Captioning and Subtitling defined here
Patients – someone under medical care Patience – endurance under difficult circumstances Closed Captioning and Subtitling defined here
Perimeter – a boundary Parameter – a math term Closed Captioning and Subtitling defined here
Complement – something that supplements another Compliment – a nice thing to say Closed Captioning and Subtitling defined here
Coiffeur – male hairdresser Coiffure – the hairdo Closed Captioning and Subtitling defined here
Censor – to suppress Censure – officially denounce Sensor – a device that senses something Censer – incense burner Closed Captioning and Subtitling defined here
Hummus – rotted plant matter Humus – a dip made from chick peas Closed Captioning and Subtitling defined here
Whole – fully together Hole – an opening Closed Captioning and Subtitling defined here
Hoard – verb, gathering and hiding treasure of any type Horde – noun, large group
Grill – cooking implement or as a verb meaning to cross-examine. Grille – Grating that covers an opening or referring to the opening itself which is covered with grating.
Gray – the American spelling of the word, grey, referring to color.
Clean up – verb Cleanup – noun
Flak – specifically referencing WWII pilot slang referring to shells being fired into the air Flack – modernized version of the slang, flak
Disc – referring to a compact disc or DVD Disk – all other usages
Demure – proper, reserved Demur – delay or hesitate
Confident- strong belief Confidante – a person you confide in
Awhile – adverb referencing time, stay awhile. A while – object of a preposition, note using “for” preceding “a while” for your tip-off.
Raise – an elevation Raze – to destroy
Populace – the population of x Populous – an amount, full or densely populated
Pray – entreat, implore, plea Prey – hunted, seized, devoured, stalked
Pour – verb Pore – noun
Plain – as an adjective means ordinary as a noun it can mean flat Plane – a tool or having to do with measurement, a higher or lower plane of existence
Wretch – descriptor for behavior or circumstances. Retch – vomiting etc.
Forego – going before Forgo – to do without
Device – noun Devise – verb
Desert – a barren area Dessert – cakes, cookies, etc
Deprivation – being deprived of something Depravation – perversion
Diffuse – spreading of x item Defuse – removing the fuse from a bomb or metaphorically from a situation
Decent – a descriptor Descent – ancestry
Columbia – US capital Colombia – South American country
College – an institution Collage – a grouping of items
Colosseum – the proper name of a specific structure in Rome. Coliseum – every other coliseum.
A piece references a part of something. This sentence is a piece of this blog. Apiece means each. If I sold the blogs I write I could get, maybe, 25 cents apiece.
Revue – a type of performance Review – to examine or assess
Seem – verb Seam – where two separate items are joined
Segway – a two-wheeled conveyance Seque – changing to a new topic or activity
Shear – to cut Sheer – thin fabric, a perpendicular wall, completely correct
Shown – past tense of show Shone – past tense of shine
Sleight of hand
Sometime – an indefinite time Some time – a specific time
Stationary – not moving Stationery – paper materials
Strait – narrow passageway between bodies of water Straight – not bent or curved
Valance – drapery Valence – a chemistry term
Tolled – charged a fee Told – past tense of tell
Summary – a synopsis Summery- relating to the season summer
Currant – fruit Current – present time
Crape – type of paper or cloth Crepe – French pancake
Cowered – past tense of cower Coward – fearful person
Council – an official group Consul – local representative of a foreign government Counsel – advice
Copyright. The past tense is copyrighted, not copywritten.
Complementary – things that work together well Complimentary – giving or receiving a compliment
Core – the center Corp – an organization
Consensus – arriving at common sense Consensus – arriving at a general agreement
Assure – giving feelings of confidence Ensure – to make certain Insure – referencing an insurance policy
Assent – verb, to agree or consent Ascent – noun, to mean climb
Coarse – rough, both physically or metaphorically Course – a pathway
Click – a sound or action Clique – a group of people
Cite – to reference Site – a location Sight – referencing something optical
Chute – an inclined channel Shoot – every other usage unless referring to a parachute
Czech- a Czechoslovakian Check – any other usage
Champaign – city in Illinois Champagne – region in France
Bated breath, meaning held breath
Bare – naked Bear – a mammal
Ball – a round object Bawl – to cry
Backup – making additional copies of media Back up – to move in reverse both physically or metaphorically
Bail – a bound group of grains Bale – removing water
Axel – a figure skating term Axle – a bar on which a wheel turns
Floe – a sheet of moving ice Flow – movement by a liquid, moving from one place to another
Flare – verb regarding fire or anger Flair – an obvious talent
Feint – to distract Faint – to lose consciousness or implying timidity
Faze – to negatively disturb something Phase – having to do with an aspect of something
Faun – a mythological being Fawn – a young deer or showing affection
Fair – equitable Fare – a fee or charge to do something
Exasperate – to get irritated Exacerbate – to make something or situation worse
Everyone – meaning everybody Every one – singular
Inquire – asking for information Enquire – same thing, British spelling
Dyeing – what i learned in a master’s class on changing the color of fabric Dying – how I felt when the colors came out wrong
Emigrate – to leave your home country Immigrate – moving to a new country
Elicit – verb Illicit – noun describing something illegal or taboo
Dowse – using a dowsing rod Douse – pouring water on a fire
Dully – doing something in a dull manner Duly – properly
Duck tape – original term for duct tape Duct tape – modern term for duck tape
Dual – two Duel – a fight
Drier – less wet than something else or previously Dryer – appliance to dry clothing
Rye – type of grain Wry – using or expressing dry humor
Route – pathway or road Rout – a disorderly retreat of defeated troops Root – everything else
Role – a portrayal Roll – everything else
Right – a direction or confirmation Write – markings on a surface, typically paper, with a pen, pencil, or similar implement Rite – a ritual
Troupe – specifically a group of performers Troop – everything else
Threw – past tense of throw Through – any other usage other than a tense of throw
Throne – chair Thrown – is an action
Timber – wood Timbre – music term
Subtitles are the visual representation of dialog transcribed or translated and displayed onscreen (either embedded in or superimposed over a portion of the picture) in films, television, or video games. Subtitles are displayed generally on the bottom of the screen along with the audio track for the purpose of making the dialog more comprehensible to … [Read more…]
Taught – past tense of teach Taut – an expression of physical tension
Whether – castrated sheep Weather – climate Whether – expressing a doubt or choice between alternatives
Vein – carries blood Vane – an object that is moved by gases, weather vane Vain – narcissistic
Whisky – the Irish form of the word whiskey Whiskey – the American form of the word whisky
Wrapped – to cover or enclose, also metaphorically such as, wrapped up in travel plans Rapt – completely fascinated by what one is seeing or hearing
Who’s – a contraction for who is Whose – ownership
Navel – oranges and your belly button Naval – sailing term
Mucus – noun Mucous – adjective
Rub down – action Rubdown – noun
Pull over the car. Pullover – apparel that not zippered or buttoned
Vale of tears
Whet your appetite
Vary – to be or become different Very – a modifier
Prey – something that is hunted Pray – a religious activity
Up to not upto
Undo – to take apart Undue – opposite of due
Trustee – member of a board Trusty – a trusted convict
Yin and yang
Yoke – harnesses oxen or horses together Yolk – the yellow part of an egg
Marital – referring to marriage Martial – appropriate to war, war-like
Hindi – a language Hindu – a practitioner of Hinduism
Here – location reference Hear – to audibly recognize
Heal – to do with health Heel – the back of your foot or other items such as bread
Hardy – hard to kill Hearty – everything else
Hale – used in the standalone phrase, hale into court, meaning haul Hail – for every other usage
Either is fine
Grisly – horrible Grizzly – type of bear
Beck and call
Carrot – vegetable Carat – weight measurement for gems Caret – ^, a proofing mark Karat – amount of gold in an alloy
Canvas – heavy cloth Canvass – survey of voters opinions
Calvary – the hill where Jesus was crucified Cavalry – soldiers on horseback
Cacao – a tree and it’s seeds are used in making cocoa Cocoa – basis of chocolate Coca – basis of cocaine
Brooch – decorative pin Broach – to raise something for discussion
Bullion – gold Bouillon – soup stock
Britain – place Briton – person
Breath – noun Breathe – verb
Break – to harm something Brake – to slow or stop something
Born – to be birthed or carried Borne – a small stream
Breach – breakage Breach – to charge or reference britches
Borders – boundaries Boarders – everything else
Beyond the pale. Unless there is a pail involved and there is something beyond it, like a dog or someone trying to kicking it.
Bloc – group of people or nations or voters, etc. Block – for everything else
Principal – someone of the highest rank Principle – law or doctrine
Staid – adjective referencing a person Stayed – past tense of the verb, stay
Whale – to beat Wail – High-pitched cry
Appose – a spatial reference Oppose – to be against something
Anyone – anybody Any one – a singular reference
Allusive – to allude to something Elusive – something that is hard to understand or act upon Illusive – illusory, referencing an illusion
Altogether – adverb meaning completely All together – referencing a grouping
Any time is two words.
Anywhere is one word.
Somewhere is one word.
Nowhere is one word.
Aloud – audible Allowed – to be given permission
Allusion – referencing something Illusion – hallucinations
Allude – referencing something Elude – to evade
Alliterate – words that start with the same sound Illiterate – can’t read this post
All ready – completely prepared Already – adverb referring to a specific time
Aisle – narrow passageway Isle – an island
Aesthetic – appreciation of beauty Ascetic – avoiding pleasure
Canon is a literary term referring to a collection of works. A cannon is a piece of artillery.
Capitol is a building. Capital is an uppercase letter.
Heroin is made from opium. A heroine saves you from a falling building.
Crevices are tiny, crevasses are large.
Albeit is one word.
Afterwards relates to time. Afterwords are book notations.
Adverse – difficult circumstances Averse – strong feelings against X
Affluence – riches, wealth Effluence – something that flows out Best to not confuse the two.
When you are viewing a video, it may be important to you that you are able to turn on closed captioning so that you can easily read along with the audio for the video. It is simple to turn on closed captioning in Quicktime and ITunes, and now you can enjoy watching videos even when … [Read more…]
Is a question that really misses the point. The quality of the microphone and proximity to the speaker is what you should be worrying about. Here are some of our recording tips.
One of the worst things that can happen to a project is vagueness in the budget. When you don’t know how much you’ll need to spend on one aspect of what you’re trying to do, it’s impossible to know exactly how much money is going to be available for other elements. Whatever the reason you … [Read more…]
When viewing videos, many people chose to use closed captioning. This allows them to watch the videos if they cannot hear, if they’re in a place where the video’s audio is drowned out by other noise, such as people speaking, or just because that is their preference. If you’d like to turn on VLC Media … [Read more…]
Anything digital with an external mic. If no external mic exists, make sure the unit has a stereo line-in jack and then order a 99 cent stereo lapel mic on Ebay. You can see a Visual comparison between mono and stereo jacks here. Please click here to see our tips on achieving a good recording. … [Read more…]
When you’re creating a video to share with others over the Internet, you may want to add captioning to your video. This enables people who are deaf or hard of hearing to view and understand the content in your videos, as well as people who may need to have the volume turned off for some … [Read more…]
Most hearing impaired people will be happy to know that the new FCC closed captioning rules have been put in place which should make their time watching television much more enjoyable. Prior to these laws being put in place, there were many issues a person may have had to deal with when watching a program … [Read more…]
Recently the FCC has set up new rules to govern captioning services. These rules are designed to make closed captioning more consistent and of better quality for the people who rely on this service so they can obtain news and information as well as enjoy watching entertaining television programs. These rules apply to most broadcast … [Read more…]
When viewing a video you may wonder how-to turn on closed captioning in Vimeo? There’s many reasons why you may want to turn on closed captioning or subtitles. Whether you’re hard of hearing, in a place where you have to have the sound muted, or you just want to make sure you don’t miss anything … [Read more…]
When you work hard on making the perfect video to upload to YouTube, you certainly do not want to limit its audience. The purpose of uploading a video is to get the entire world to take notice of it. To make this happen, you need to make sure your video can be understood by people … [Read more…]
Closed Captioning provides a wonderful service for the Deaf or hard-of-hearing. It transcribes the actions and the dialogue of the video into words on the screen. On the social media website YouTube, there is a way to obtain closed captions, but only on certain videos where the owner of the video has supplied them, and … [Read more…]
Many times, it can be much easier for a person to dictate words they need typed into a recorder than it can be for them to try to type or write the thoughts in their head. While this process can make it easy for a person to allow their thoughts to flow easily, eventually they … [Read more…]
One of the biggest advantages to hearing-impaired people are closed captioning services. With this service on their television, they are able to see text of what is being said on news programs, television shows and many movies. This can be a great benefit in allowing them to get information and entertainment from their television sets … [Read more…]
People watching YouTube who find themselves experiencing a problem with their hearing or are just having a difficult time understanding the video now have the opportunity of using closed captioning while viewing videos. Unfortunately, many people are unaware of how to activate this system. Once you learn, you will want to view all your favorite … [Read more…]
Closed caption services are essential for anyone who is Deaf or has hearing issues that make it difficult for them to watch and hear television programming. Without the aid of this technique a person who is hearing impaired, would find it very difficult to understand what is going on during any program or they might … [Read more…]
If the words together before the noun modify it, hyphenation is usually necessary. I have a full-time job. My job is full time.
Ban is a verb. Band is a noun. Bands is also an outdated mechanic in MTG. Ban bands!
is an ad, not an add.
Advice is a noun. Advise is a verb. John advised Spot not to run, but Spot didn’t take the advice.
Already is an adverb that means something that occurred in the past. All ready is a statement of completeness.
Exceed – to go beyond Accede – to give in
Whet – you whet your appetite Wet – to saturate something with a liquid
Mock – to make fun of, or to copy, something. Mach – a number that indicates the ration of speed of an object in comparison to the speed of sound.
Gild means to cover in gold. A guild is a professional organization.
Gaff is a hook. Gaffe is an embarrassing mistake.
Fowl is a bird. Foul means loathsome or offensive.
An ordinance is a law. Ordnance refers to weapons and ammunition.
Entomology is the study of insects. Etymology is the study of words.
Every time is two words. Every time, every time.
Aural relates to things you hear while oral relates to the things you say or generally relating to the mouth.
A la. As in, a la mode.
The goal is to make an easily readable document using commas, periods and question marks. Refrain from using ; ! ” ” (semi-colons, exclamation points and quotation marks) A colon is appropriate after a speaker’s name. Male narrator:
A prepositional phrase is a group of words that lacks either a verb or a subject, and that functions as a unified part of speech. It normally consists of a preposition and a noun or a preposition and a pronoun. Source: http://www.gingersoftware.com/content/grammar-rules/preposition/prepositional-phrases/
An article is an adjective that modifies a noun. There are two articles in the English lexicon, the and a/an.
If the root is not a complete word, use -ible. – horrible – incredible If the root is a complete word, use -able. – fashionable – laughable
To tell the difference between a stereo and a mono headset, just check the headset jack. If there are two stripes on the jack it is a stereo jack. If there is only one stripe it is a mono jack. Make sure there are no mono adapters or extensions in any of your lines, one … [Read more…]
[sic] indicates that the passage is just as it appears in its original source. The usual purpose is to inform readers that any errors or apparent errors in the transcribed material are from the speaker and not as a result of poor transcription. It is placed adjacent to the preceding word. Parenthesis instead of brackets … [Read more…]
Italics are only used in the following instances: Books Movies Magazines TV shows Watercraft Record album titles / CD titles.
Theater, is the spelling that is preferred by The Closed Captioning Project LLC.
Jury, is the spelling that is preferred by The Closed Captioning Project LLC.
In transcription [Simultaneous discussion] is used when a number of people are speaking once in the conversation and you can’t understand the conversation. A single line break is placed above and below it. Parenthesis is preferred over brackets when used in captioning.
Open MS Word. Tools > Autocorrect Options>Autoformat tab. Unclick Hyphens.
Use Google to look up unknown words. If the word cannot be found a [sp?] will be inserted immediately following the word we are unsure[sp?] of. (sp?) if used in captioning.
Web site is two words and Web is always capped. I went to his Web site.
I looked up this information on the Internet.
While spell check and grammar check are valuable tools and often catch obvious errors, they are not capable of picking up nuance. For example, if one uses effect when affect should be used, spell check often will not distinguish. It might also miss the use of an incorrect form of a word, e.g., they’re/their/there. Spell … [Read more…]
When a speaker is interrupted by another speaker, we represent this with two dashes. When the speaker resumes, or doesn’t pause because of the interruption, we continue the sentence with two dashes.
If the current speaker trails off or is cut off by another speaker we represent this with either . . . or –-. . . . (space, period, space, period, space, period) is used when a person trails off. — (dash, dash) is used when someone is cut off or interrupted. Neither are acceptable for … [Read more…]
Is used in broadcast transcription when there is a break in the interview for technical reasons. A single line break is placed above and below it.
Alot isn’t a word. A lot, is two words.
When the transcriptionist cannot understand the speaker’s utterance, a time stamp [00:00:00] will be inserted in the transcription. For closed captioning an insert of (inaudible) is expected.
Format > Paragraph > Line and Page Breaks>Pagination Click the box for Widow/Orphan Control Click >> Ok
File> Special Audio Processes>>Background Noise Reduction, Extra Volume Boost, High Pass Filter We often recommend Special Audio Processes in Express Scribe to tweak things a bit. The High Pass Filter can be of great help, even on good recordings. The others, Background Noise Reduction and Extra Volume Boost, can be hit and miss as far as … [Read more…]
If the audio is only in one channel, put that channel in your right ear. Your right ear processes speech better than your left.
All notations will be framed in brackets for transcription but parentheses for captioning. With an Arial font for captioning the parenthesis feels more comfortable in our opinion. [laughs] (laughs) [sic] (sic) [inaudible] (inaudible) [clears throat] (clears throat) [chuckles] (chuckles) [sp?] (sp?)
A [sp?] will be used when there isn’t a confirmed the spelling of a proper name. [sp?] will be placed directly behind the name in question. Dr. Fritzhower[sp?]
4 o’clock = 4:00 AM = a.m. PM = p.m.
For consistency’s sake, affirmative sounds should be: um, uh, uh-huh, mm-hmm, nh-nuh, ah-ha, hmm, mm or [audible sound], if necessary.
All numbers one through nine are spelled out and numerals are used for 10 and above. Nine=9, but 10=10. Exception: We will spell out all numerals if the number is at the beginning of the sentence.
Years: ’30s or 1930s. No apostrophe. Ages: 30’s. With apostrophe.
Two spaces are recommended after colons and at the end of sentences because it makes it easier to line break the document for closed captioning.
idea = noun meaning a thought, belief, or conception held in the mind, or a general notion or conception formed by generalization: Greg had a brilliant idea. ideal = noun meaning something or someone that embodies perfection, or an ultimate object or endeavor: Greg was the ideal for chefs everywhere. ideal = adjective meaning embodying … [Read more…]
Quotations are set off with commas.
Unless it’s a proper name, don’t.
Pop-on and roll-up are the two styles of presentation commonly used in television captioning. Paint-on captions are sometimes used for special effects but are much less common. Accurate Secretarial LLC endorses the use of the pop-on style for all television captioning. WebVTT supports pop-on as well as paint-on captions. Pop-on captions, as their name suggests, … [Read more…]
RealVideo is a suite of proprietary video compression formats developed by RealNetworks and first 1997. RealVideo is supported on many platforms, including Windows, Mac, Linux, Solaris, and several mobile phones. RealVideo is usually paired with RealAudio and packaged in a RealMedia container, which can also include metadata including subtitles and closed captioning, with the file … [Read more…]
The Digital Entertainment Content Ecosystem (DECE) is a cross-industry initiative developing the next generation digital media experience based on open, licensable specifications. DECE members include network hardware manufacturers such as Cisco, computer, television and mobile device manufacturers such as Sony, Samsung and HP, content producers such as Fox and Warner Brothers, audio and visual encoding … [Read more…]
DV is a format for storing digital video, audio and metadata such as subtitles and closed captioning. It was launched in 1995 through the joint efforts of multiple producers of video camera recorders. DV uses lossy compression of video while audio is stored uncompressed. An intra-frame video compression scheme is used to compress video on … [Read more…]
DivX is the brand name of products created originally by DivX LLC, including the DivX Codec which became popular due to its ability to compress lengthy video segments into small sizes while maintaining high visual quality. The three DivX codecs include the original MPEG-4 Part 2 DivX, the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC DivX Plus HD codec and … [Read more…]
Motion JPEG (MJPEG or M-JPEG) is a video compression format in which each video frame or interlaced field of a digital video sequence (including video and metadata such as subtitles and closed captioning) is compressed separately as a JPEG image. Originally developed for multimedia PC applications, MJPEG is now used by video-capture devices such as … [Read more…]
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web. W3C was founded in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee, inventor of the World Wide Web and author of the first Web server and client program as well as author of HyperText Markup Language (HTML), the computer language primarily used … [Read more…]
Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL) is a World Wide Web Consortium extensible markup language (XML) that enables authoring of interactive audiovisual presentations. SMIL is typically used for multimedia presentations which integrate streaming audio and video with images, text or any other type of media including animations, visual transitions, and metadata such as subtitles and closed … [Read more…]
XDCAM is a series of products for digital recording using random access solid-state memory media introduced by Sony in 2003. Four different product lines, the XDCAM SD, XDCAM HD, XDCAM EX and XDCAM HD422, differ in types of encoder used, frame size, container type and in recording media. The XDCAM range includes cameras and decks … [Read more…]
ProRes is a lossy video compression format developed by Apple, Inc., for use in post-production. It is the successor of the Apple Intermediate Codec and was introduced in 2007 with Final Cut Studio 2. ProRes is a line of intermediate codecs, which means they are intended for use during video editing, including synchronization of audio … [Read more…]
Avid DNxHD (Digital Nonlinear Extensible High Definition) is a lossy high-definition video post-production codec engineered for multi-generation compositing with reduced storage and bandwidth requirements for audio, video and metadata (including subtitles and closed captioning) source material. It is an implementation of the SMPTE VC-3 standard. The DNxHD codec was developed by Avid Technology, Inc., and … [Read more…]
VP6, VP7, VP8 and VP9 are proprietary high-definition video compression formats and codecs developed by On2 Technologies and used in platforms such as Adobe Flash Player 8 and above, Adobe Flash Lite, Java FX and other mobile and desktop video platforms. A video codec is a device or software that enables compression or decompression of … [Read more…]
Windows Media Player (WMP) is a media player and media library application developed by Microsoft that is used for playing audio and video and for viewing images (including subtitles and closed captioning) on personal computers. Windows Media Player replaced an earlier application called Media Player which was introduced in 1991, adding features beyond simple video … [Read more…]
MPEG-1 is a standard for lossy compression of video and audio. It is designed to compress VHS-quality raw digital video and CD audio and metadata such as subtitles and closed captioning without excessive quality loss, making video CDs, digital cable and satellite TV and digital audio broadcasting (DAB) possible as well as allowing for easy … [Read more…]
Theora is a free and open lossy video compression format from the Xiph.Org Foundation. It can be used to distribute film and video online (as well as audio and metadata, including subtitles and closed captioning) and on disc without the licensing and royalty fees or vendor lock-in associated with other formats. Xiph.Org Foundation is a … [Read more…]
WebVTT (Web Video Text Tracks) is a file format that allows editing of external text tracks. Used in conjunction with HTML5’s <track> element allows information such as subtitles, closed captioning and descriptions for a media resource such as audio or video to be displayed synchronized with the media resource. The ability to add textual information … [Read more…]
SAMI (Synchronized Accessible Media Interchange) is a file format designed to deliver synchronized text such as closed captioning, subtitles, or audio descriptions with digital media content. SAMI was released by Microsoft in 1998. The files may have either .smi or .sami file extensions. At its most basic level SAMI can be used as an intermediate … [Read more…]
H.263, H.264 (or MPEG-4 Part 10 Advanced Video Coding or MPEG-4 AVC) are video compression formats used for the recording, compression, and distribution of video content as well as audio and metadata such as subtitles or closed captioning. H.263 was developed by the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) in 1996. The first version of … [Read more…]
Adobe Flash Player (labeled Shockwave Flash in Internet Explorer and Firefox) is freeware software for viewing multimedia, executing rich Internet applications, and streaming video, audio and metadata content such as subtitles and closed captioning created on the Adobe Flash platform. Flash Player can run from a web browser as a browser plug-in or on supported … [Read more…]
CEA-708 (Consumer Electronics Association-708), also called EIA-708 is the current standard for closed captioning (textual transcription of the audio content of a program) for Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) digital television (DTV) streams in the United States and Canada. It was developed by the Electronic Industries Alliance. Unlike run-length encoding digital video broadcasting (RLE DVB) … [Read more…]
RTMP (Real Time Messaging Protocol) is a proprietary protocol developed by Macromedia for streaming audio, video and data (including metadata such as subtitles and closed captioning) over the Internet between a Flash player and a server. While the primary motivation for RTMP was to be a protocol for playing Flash video, it is also used … [Read more…]
TTML (Timed Text Markup Language, formerly specified as DXFP) was published as a detailed standard in November 2010 by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) that covers timed text on the Web with the goal being to define a nonproprietary, standardized format that could be used for displaying text synchronized with other elements such as … [Read more…]
A codec is a computer program capable of encoding or decoding a digital data stream or signal. A codec encodes a data stream or signal for transmission, storage or encryption, or decodes it for playback or editing. Codecs are used in videoconferencing, streaming media and video editing applications. An audio codec converts analog audio signals … [Read more…]
In telecommunications and computing, bitrate is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time. A bit is the basic unit of information in computing and digital communications. A bit can have only one of two values and may therefore be physically implemented with a two-state device. These values are most … [Read more…]
SWF is an Adobe Flash file format used for multimedia, vector graphics and ActionScript. SWF files deliver graphics (including text, such as subtitles and closed captioning) and animation over the Internet. The SWF file format was designed as a very efficient delivery format and not as a format for exchanging graphics between graphics editors. SWF … [Read more…]
WebVTT (Web Video Text Tracks) is a file format that allows editing of external text tracks. Used in conjunction with HTML5’s <track> element allows information such as subtitles, closed captioning and descriptions for a media resource such as audio or video to be displayed synchronized with the media resource. The ability to add textual information … [Read more…]
VOB (Video Object) is the container format used in DVD-Video media. VOB can contain digital video, digital audio, subtitles (including closed captioning), DVD menus and navigation contents multiplexed together into a stream form. Files in VOB format may be encrypted. Files in VOB format have .vob filename extension. The VOB format is based on the … [Read more…]
Waveform Audio File Format (WAVE or more commonly known as WAV due to its filename extension .wav) is a Microsoft and IBM audio file format standard for storing an audio bitstream on PCs. It is an application of the Resource Interchange File Format (RIFF) bitstream format method for storing data in chunks. It is the … [Read more…]
The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) is a professional membership association focused on the advancement of the art, science, and craft of the image, sound, and metadata (such as subtitles and closed captioning) ecosystem, worldwide. Since its founding in 1916, SMPTE has published the SMPTE Motion Imaging Journal and developed more than … [Read more…]
WMV (Windows Media Video) is a file type which can contain video, audio and subtitles including closed captioning) in one of several video compression formats developed by Microsoft. WMV was originally designed for Internet streaming applications as a competitor to RealVideo. Other formats, such as WMV Screen and WMV Image, cater for specialized content. Through … [Read more…]
MXF (Material eXchange Format) is a file format for the exchange between servers, tape streamers and digital archives for professional digital video and audio media defined by a set of SMPTE (Society of Motion Picture & Television Engineers) standards. MXF a supports a number of different streams encoded in any of a variety of video … [Read more…]
HDV is a format for recording high-definition video on DV (digital video) cassette tape. The format was originally developed by JVC and supported by Sony, Canon, and Sharp. The four companies formed the HDV consortium in September 2003. HDV and HDV logo are trademarks of JVC and Sony. In HDV, video and audio are encoded … [Read more…]
WebM is a video file format intended primarily for royalty-free use in the HTML-5 video tag. The WebM Project releases WebM-related software under a BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution, a Unix-like operating system) license and all users are granted a worldwide, non-exclusive, no-charge, royalty-free patent license. WebM files consist of video streams (as well as metadata … [Read more…]
FLV (Flash Video) is a container file format used to deliver video over the Internet using Adobe Flash Player version 6 and newer. Flash Video content may also be embedded within SWF (an Adobe Flash file format used for multimedia, vector graphics and ActionScript files). There are two different video file formats known as Flash … [Read more…]
AVI (Audio Video Interleaved) is a multimedia container format introduced by Microsoft in November 1992 as part of its Video for Windows software. AVI files contain audio and video data and metadata (such as subtitles and closed captioning) in a file container that allows synchronous audio-with-video playback. Like the DVD video format, AVI files support … [Read more…]
MPEG-2 (H.222/H.262 as defined by the ITU) is a standard for the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information and metadata such as subtitles and closed captioning. It describes a combination of lossy video compression and lossy audio data compression methods which permit storage and transmission of movies using currently available storage media … [Read more…]
A timecode is a sequence of numeric codes generated at regular intervals by a timing synchronization system. They provide a time reference for editing, synchronization, identification and transcription. In video production and filmmaking, SMPTE (Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers) timecode is a form of media metadata (along with subtitles and closed captioning) used … [Read more…]
3GP (3GPP file format) is a multimedia container format defined by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) for 3G UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) multimedia services. It is used primarily on 3G mobile phones but can also be played on some 2G and 4G phones. 3GP is a required file format for video and associated … [Read more…]
MPEG transport stream (MPEG-TS, MTS or TS) is a standard format for transmission and storage of audio, video and Program and Information System Information Protocol (PSIP) data. It is used in broadcast systems such as DVB, ATSC and IPTV. Transport Stream is specified in MPEG-2 Part 1, Systems. Transport stream specifies a container format encapsulating … [Read more…]
MP4 is an abbreviated term for MPEG-4 Part 14. It may also be referred to as MPEG-4 AVC (Advanced Video Coding). This format for working with video files was first introduced in 1998. The MPEG refers to Motion Pictures Expert Group, a working group of authorities established in 1988 by Hiroshi Yasuda and Leonardo Chiariglione … [Read more…]
Did you know there is a difference between the captioning of analog television (608) and captioning of digital television (708)? Comparing the two, there have been many more advances made to 708 captions than 608 captions. Analog captioning has fewer capabilities than the digital television captioning. Analog television captioning is becoming less common as most … [Read more…]
To = preposition, or first part of the infinitive form of a verb – They went to the lake to swim. Too = very, also – I was too tired to continue. I was hungry, too. Two = the number 2 – Two students scored below passing on the exam.
We’re – contraction for we are – We’re happy to help. Where – location – Where are you? Were – a past tense form of the verb be – They were walking to the store. Wear – to use something as clothing
Their = possessive pronoun – They got their books. There = that place – My house is over there. They’re = contraction for they are – They’re making dinner.
Lead – noun referring to a dense metallic element: The X-ray technician wore a vest lined with lead. Led – past-tense and past-participle form of the verb to lead, meaning to guide or direct: The evidence led the jury to reach a unanimous decision.
Conscious -adjective meaning awake, perceiving: Despite a head injury, the patient remained conscious. Conscience – noun meaning the sense of obligation to be good: You wouldn’t cheat because your conscience wouldn’t let you.
Accept – verb meaning to receive or to agree. Except – preposition meaning all but, other than.
Complement, as a noun, means something that completes or makes perfect. It also means a quantity or amount that completes something. As a verb, complement means to complete. Examples: 1. (as a noun) This area rug is the perfect complement to the room. 2. (as a noun) We have the full complement of encyclopedias. 3. … [Read more…]
You’re is a contraction for you are. For example: I think you’re (you are) going to love it. Your is the possessive form of you, used as an attributive adjective… For example: I like your idea. OR …the possessive form of you, used to indicate something belonging or relevant to oneself or another. For example: … [Read more…]
Oftentimes is one word
Words that are made plural by a variation in spelling rather than by adding an -es or -s, e.g., women, men, children, people, should be treated as singular words when making them possessive. For example: The store is very pleased with its remodeled women’s clothing department. There is a new children’s museum opening this weekend. … [Read more…]
It’s – a contraction for it is or it has Its – the possessive form of it A foolproof way to determine which to use is to attempt to break the word down from the contraction form. If “it is” fits correctly into your sentence, use the contraction – it’s. An example of their usage … [Read more…]
Who’s is a contraction for who is or who has. Whose is a possessive form of who that’s used as an adjective. Examples: Who’s (who is) going to the concert? Who’s (who has) been to this venue before? Whose car are we taking? I wonder whose coat this is.
Everyday is a single-word adjective that means daily. Every day is two words and an expression of time, indicating regular, or daily, action. It is a noun (day) modified by an adjective (every). A couple of examples are: My everyday jacket is not appropriate for an evening out. I wear this jacket every day, except … [Read more…]
Rein, as a noun, is a leather strap fastened to a bridle used to control a horse or other animal. Used as a verb, it means to guide or check the horse or animal; to restrain, curb and/or control. Examples: 1. He is using the reins to control his horses before they take off on … [Read more…]
Alright is never all right. Alright is not a word. All right is two words.
Setup is a noun and is one word. They had a great setup at the conference. Set up is a verb and is two separate words. We are going to set up for the conference.
Hyphenate -wise. Length-wise Health-wise Weather-wise
Than is used in comparison statements; He is smarter than I. Used in statements of preference; I would rather drink than drive. Used to suggest quantities beyond a specified amount; Read more than the last page. Then is a time other than now; He was younger then. She will start her new job then. Next … [Read more…]
Afterall isn’t a word. After all is two words. The latter is correct, the former is not.
In general, use into when movement, action or a transformation of state occur. In to indicates location or state that is generally more static and not transitional.
affect = verb meaning to influence: Will lack of sleep affect your work? effect = noun meaning result or consequence: Will lack of sleep have an effect on your work? effect = verb meaning to bring about, to accomplish: Our efforts have effected a major change in policy.
Discrete is an adjective meaning individually separate and distinct. Discreet is also an adjective but means to be careful and circumspect in one’s speech or actions, esp. to avoid causing offense or to gain an advantage or to be intentionally unobtrusive.
It’s already a modifier. e.g. Technically feasible plan, not technically-feasible plan.
Hyphenation is used when a noun is being modified. Eg. 18-year-old boy. 18-year-old modifies boy. You are behaving like a two-year-old. (noun = two-year-old) In this example we’re using that hyphenated phrase with the indefinite article in a pronominal sense. It really means “an 18-year-old child, so it’s like a substitute pronoun. As such, it … [Read more…]
Acclamation – loud shout, acclaiming Acclimation – adapt, becoming used to a new climate
.SCC files are one of the oldest closed caption file formats. The name is based on Scenarist Closed Captions. Unlike many newer closed caption files, the text is encoded in hexadecimal format. This format is used primarily by television broadcasters. The file itself is encoded into line 21 of the video (which is generally not … [Read more…]
DFXP files are xml based closed caption files. They generally contain formatting information like font color and alignment, among others. One DFXP file can contain captions in multiple languages. The viewer will show either the language that it normally displays by default, or whatever language the user chooses (if the file contains that language.) Ooyala … [Read more…]